No. 429, Yangguang Road, Yinzhou District, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China P.C.: 315175

stainless steel factory

200 series stainless steel is an internationally popular name, also known in China as chrome-manganese stainless steel or manganese-based stainless steel or high-manganese low-nickel austenitic stainless steel. Stainless steel is classified into ferritic stainless steel, austenitic stainless steel, martensitic stainless steel, duplex (ferritic-austenitic) stainless steel and precipitation hardening or age hardening stainless steel according to its metallographic structure; or chemical composition Features are classified into chrome stainless steel, chrome nickel stainless steel and chrome manganese (manganese) stainless steel. Chromium is an element contained in stainless steel, and nickel, manganese, molybdenum, nitrogen, titanium, niobium, copper, etc. are alloying elements of various stainless steels. Manganese is not only one of the alloying elements of stainless steel, but also the main alloying element for nickel and nickel in the 200 series stainless steel. It has the effect of weakly forming and stabilizing austenite, which can improve the strength of stainless steel. Table 1 lists the Chinese stainless steel grades and the chromium, nickel and manganese content and typical representative grades under normal conditions.

Table 1 China’s stainless steel grade and chromium nickel manganese content

Steel Type


Typical brand
Cr ≥Ni≥

Mn ≤

Ferrite17.00 1.500Cr13 、0C r12 Ti 、00C r12 、1C r17Mo 、Y1C r17 、1C r25Ti 、00C r18Mo2
Austenite18.008.002.000Cr18Ni9、Y1Cr18Ni9 、0C r17Ni12Mo2 、00Cr17Ni14Mo2 、1Cr18Ni9Ti
200 series15.003.00≥4 .001Cr17Mn6Ni5N 、1C r18Mn8Ni5N 、1Cr17Mn6Ni5Cu3N 、1Cr15Mn8Ni5C u2
Martensite13.00≤0.751.501Cr13 、1C r13Ni2 、Y1Cr13 、9C r18Mo 、1Cr17Ni2 、3C r13Mo 、Y11C r17 、Y3Cr13
Duplex steel18.005.002.000C r26Ni5Mo2 、1Cr18Ni11Si4A1Ti 、00Cr18Ni5Mo3Si2 、00Cr24Ni6Mo3N 、
Precipitation hardening steel17.003.001.500C r17Ni4Cu4Nb 、0C r17Ni7Al 、0C r15Ni7Mo2Al

The development of 200 series stainless steel with manganese-nickel or manganese-nickel-nickel began in World War II. At that time, due to the war, nickel was strictly controlled by the countries concerned as a strategic substance, and the supply of nickel was seriously insufficient. To this end, the United States, Germany, etc. began the study of stainless steel with manganese-nickel. By the 1940s, the United States first developed this 200-series stainless steel new steel with manganese-based nickel. After the end of World War II, the supply of nickel in the United States gradually improved, and stainless steel production was no longer constrained by the shortage of raw materials, so the 200 series did not further develop. At that time, several Indians who had participated in the research and development of 200 series stainless steel returned to India. According to the situation of India’s manganese-rich and nickel-deficient conditions, the 200 series stainless steel varieties developed in the United States were brought back to India for further research and application. The results have been great Success.

At present, the major stainless steel producing countries such as the United States, Japan, Germany, France, China, South Korea, and India all have 200 series of stainless steel standards and grades. Among them, the United States, China and Russia include the 200 series of brands in the standard. The US standard is the most complete, with at least 28 200 series stainless steel standard and corporate grades. There are only one 200 series steels in the Indian national standard, but India Jindal 200 series stainless steel has three brands J1, J3 and J4. In order to promote the healthy development of manganese-based stainless steel in China, guide and standardize production and consumption, accelerate technological progress, and improve product quality, the Stainless Steel Branch of China Special Steel Enterprise Association released the Cr-Mn stainless steel thick plate, sheet and steel in December 2003. With the technical specification, the specification contains 16 grades. The chemical grade contains the lowest grade of 1Cr17Ni5Mn5N and the highest is 1Cr18Mn18MoCuN. It should be noted that India’s J1 and J4 grades are relatively special. There are no corresponding grades in many countries and manufacturers around the world. For the convenience of analysis and comparison, the corresponding grades and chemical compositions of 200 series stainless steel at home and abroad are shown in Table 2. In addition: the manganese-based stainless steel exclusively developed by Yaoyi Stainless Steel Co., Ltd. can only refer to the J1, J3 and J4 of the similar Jindal Company of India because there is no international standard grade, but the original steel grade of Yaoyi has stronger tensile strength and extension. Sex.

Table 2 National 200 series stainless steel corresponding grades and chemical composition (mass fraction) %


Brandchemical composition


china1Cr17Mn6Ni5N≤0.155.50~7.500.0600.0301.0016.00~18.003.50~5.50 ≤0.25 
USA201≤0.155.50~7.500.0600.0301.0016.00~18.003.50~5.50 ≤0.25 
JanpanSUS201≤0.155.50~7.500.0600.0301.0016.00~18.003.50~5.50 ≤0.25 



≤0.155.50~7.500.0450.0151.0016.00~18.003.50~5.50 0.05~0.25 
china1Cr18Mn8Ni5N≤0.157.50~10.000.0600.0301.0017.00~19.004.00~6.00 ≤0.25 
USA202≤0.157.50~10.000.0600.0301.0017.00~19.004.00~6.00 ≤0.25 
JanpanSUS202≤0.157.50~10.000.0600.0301.0017.00~19.004.00~6.00 ≤0.25 



≤0.157.50~10.000.0450.0151.0017.00~19.004.00~6.00 0.05~0.25 
China2Cr13Ni4Mn90.15~0.258.00~10.000.0600.0301.0012.00~14.003.70~5.00 0.20~0.30 
IndiaJ1j≤0.087.00~8.000.0750.0300.7515.00~17.004.00~5.00 ≤0.10≤1.5
J40.108.50~10.000.0900.0300.7515.00~16.00≤1.20 ≤2.0≤2.0


Global nickel resources are in short supply

Nickel is a key raw material in the production of stainless steel. If it is roughly calculated according to the ratio of stainless steel grades (chromium-manganese, chrome-nickel and chromium) and the average consumption of nickel by 5% of smelting 1t stainless steel, the annual output of 1 million tons of stainless steel consumes 50,000 tons of nickel. If China’s stainless steel output reaches 7 million tons in 2010, it will consume 350,000 tons of nickel. Considering the development and consumption demand of nickel, related industries such as alloys, electroplating, battery materials and chemicals, domestic consumption demand will exceed 400,000 tons. At present and for some time to come, the supply prospects of nickel in domestic and foreign markets are worrisome. In 2003, the global production of primary nickel was 1.196 million tons, an increase of only 1.6%. In the same period, the global consumption of primary nickel reached 1.244 million tons, an increase of 6.2%; the number of producers with a capacity of 10,000 tons was only 23, of which the output exceeded 50,000 tons. There are 8 companies such as Jinchuan in China, which account for about 70% of the world’s primary nickel production.

Driven by the growth in demand for stainless steel and the booming stainless steel industry, the growth rate of nickel consumption in the world will reach 5% in the next few years. Due to the crisis in global nickel sulphide resources, new production is very limited; new laterite nickel ore ( The development and utilization of nickel oxide ore-nickel oxides and iron oxides are affected by many factors such as the mineral processing and smelting process technology, and it is difficult to form production capacity in a short period of time. Therefore, there will be a serious shortage of supply in the nickel market in the next few years. Restricted by resources, China’s nickel production is limited to increase. It is expected that the nickel output of China’s self-produced raw materials will hardly exceed 150,000 tons in the next few years, while the nickel with a gap of more than 400,000 tons depends on imports from abroad, and only part of it can be solved. The possibility of import settlement is small.

Development prospects of 200 series stainless steel

The 200 series is a kind of stainless steel suitable for consumption in developing countries or economically underdeveloped countries. It is also a cheap and economical stainless steel suitable for China’s current national conditions. It is nickel-saving, economical, cost-effective and of good quality. For example, 201 (Chinese brand 1Cr17Mn6Ni5N) contains Mn 5.50% to 7.50%, Ni 3.50% to 5.50%, and 202 (1C r18Mn8Ni5N) contains Mn 7.50% to 10.00% and Ni 4.00% to 6.00%. 200 series stainless steel is mainly used in the field of consumer goods. It is 3% to 5% more than the 300 series stainless steel used in the current use. In the current nickel price, the cost is about 30%, so its price is lower, more popular, quality and The function can also meet the general requirements of use, and can be used in almost all general food utensils, cabinet equipment and utensils, architectural decoration and other products, and consumer products. In the weak medium corrosion condition, it can partially replace the 300 series, such as 201 and 202 instead of 301, 302, 204Cu and 211 instead of 304; in the case of no corrosion or weak corrosion, in the decoration, urban construction, etc. It is also very extensive. And with the development of the economy, the improvement of people’s living standards and the development of a huge rural market, its application areas and consumption will further increase.

There are 2 issues with regard to the 200 series stainless steel. 1200 series stainless steel product features and applicable environment. Since the role of manganese is mainly nickel in the weak formation and stabilization of austenite, it cannot completely replace the corrosion resistance caused by the combination of chromium and nickel. In the case of corrosion resistance, manganese completely replaces nickel, and more chromium is needed. The support of elements such as nitrogen, molybdenum and copper leads to an increase in cost and a decline in economy. Therefore, in general, Series 200 stainless steel is more suitable for use in weakly corrosive media environments. 2200 series stainless steel scrap return material. As the output of 200 series stainless steel increases, the amount of scrap will inevitably increase year by year. This will change the structure of scrap steel mainly based on nickel-based stainless steel scrap. If the return material cannot be distinguished, the scrap produced will affect the scrap. 300 series stainless steel (chromium-nickel) quality. At present, this problem has not yet appeared, but in the long run, the stainless steel industry is worried.

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